Nursing Home-Associated Pneumonia, Part II: Etiology and Treatment
This is the second of 2 parts of a narrative review of nursing home-associated pneumonia (NHAP) that deals with etiology and treatment in the nursing home. In the 1980s and 1990s, the etiology of NHAP was considered to be similar to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This belief was reflected in CAP guidelines until 2005 when the designation healthcare-associated pneumonia or HCAP was introduced and nursing home residents were included in the HCAP category. Patients in the HCAP group were thought to be at high risk for pneumonia because of multidrug resistant organisms and required empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy much like people with hospital-acquired infection.